Tuberculosis is known to exist even before the year 2000BC, and writings from Egypt and Babylon mention it. Even the in the Greek literature there can be found information about physician and local doctors considered this disease to be very dangerous for citizens.
Tuberculosis has been known with different names, since ancient times. The ancient disease called phthisis has references of symptoms, similar to that of TB. Later, it was also known as 'consumption' because a person used to just 'waste away' after contracting the disease. A disease called white plague that occurred in Europe, in the 17th century, was actually tuberculosis. It was called so because loss of skin color was observed in patients. The name 'tuberculosis' was used, for the first time, in the 19th century. It is believed to have originated from the word 'tubercle', meaning a 'protuberance, swelling or nodule'. In this case, such nodules are found in lungs or on bones.
The researchers developed the new TB vaccine using a genetically modified adenovirus – a virus responsible for the common cold. After removing a small portion of the gene, they inserted part of the TB gene responsible for immunity. "It is natural ways of making the body use its own immune machinery, thus making reducing TB patients.
According to scientific studies, three million people die from this disease every year. A number of around eight million new discovered TB conditions appear per year and 95% is estimated to be in developing areas. Countries like those in South America, Africa or Asia have the highest susceptibility to TB due to the low living standards and the bad economic and social conditions. Although the risk of This infection has decreased now. Immigrant communities all difficult to observe, control or treat, because of the many differences between different races and cultures.
Immunity plays a tremendous role in prevention and treatment of this disease. A healthy immune system lowers the risk of catching these diseases to 1 in 10 cases per year and only seldom an infected healthy organism gets to develop the active condition. HIV+ patients have a suppressed and weaken immune system and are mostly incapable to fight Mycobacterium. 1 in 10 patients with AIDS will surely suffer from active tuberculin infection, and from those with a positive skin test 1 in 2 will develop this disease. Epidemiological implications are very concerning as HIV cases tend to increase very rapidly. One worrying issue of the TBC condition is the development of resistance to antibiotics due to fast bacterial mutations. The resistance phenomenon increases the risk of reoccurrence and makes recurrent cases more dangerous. Administering one single drug in the treatment of this tends to be dangerous as one single mutant bacillus in enough to trigger antibiotic-resistant Tuberculosis. Nowadays doctors prescribe the standard medications for this condition. Medications schedule will prevent the multiplication of all strains of Mycobacterium bacteria.
Tuberculosis vaccines have well kept under control by good organized care systems in the civilized world. But slow developing countries are at high risk of an epidemic because of the low possibilities to prevent, supervise and treat these cases. Further laboratory studies are necessary to establish an efficient anti-Tuberculosis vaccine that might reduce the risk of catching the bacillus. The medical world must improve more into the diagnose methods as well as the available medication in order to face the hard battle with this disease and finish its root.
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